New research suggests that cannabis consumption could reduce fentanyl use and improve outcomes in people being treated for opioid addiction.
Cannabis may also reduce the likelihood of being exposed to fentanyl in the contaminated unregulated drug supply, putting them at lower risk of overdose.
Researchers from the British Columbia Centre on Substance Use (BCCSU) and University of British Columbia (UBC) found that 53 percent of 819 study participants in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside were intentionally or inadvertently using fentanyl, despite being on opioid agonist treatments (OAT) like methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone.
These evidence-based treatments aim to support people who want to eliminate their use of unregulated opioids.
However, these findings, published this week in the peer-reviewed journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, suggest people may be supplementing their treatment through the unregulated drug supply, putting them at risk of overdose.
Researchers found that those in the study who had urine tests positive for THC were approximately 10 percent less likely to have fentanyl-positive urine, putting them at lower risk of a fentanyl overdose.
“These new findings suggest that cannabis could have a stabilising impact for many patients on treatment, while also reducing the risk of overdose,” said Dr. Eugenia Socías, a clinician scientist at BCCSU and lead author of the study.
“With overdoses continuing to rise across the country, these findings highlight the urgent need for clinical research to evaluate the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids as adjunctive treatment to OAT to address the escalating opioid overdose epidemic.”
Untreated opioid use disorder is a key driver of the overdose crisis in British Columbia and across the United States and Canada.
Expanding access to evidence-based addiction care, such as OAT, has been identified as an urgent need and a key part of the response.
Research has found that without access to and rapid scale-up of take home naloxone, overdose prevention services, and OAT, the number of overdose deaths in B.C. would be 2.5 times as high.
However, while more British Columbians diagnosed with an opioid use disorder are being connected to evidence-based treatments, retention on these medications remains a challenge.
People who are retained in OAT face much lower risks of dying from an overdose, acquiring HIV or suffering other harms of drug use compared to people who are out of treatment.
Cannabis may play an important role in supporting retention on OAT. Previous research from the BCCSU found that individuals initiating OAT who reported using cannabis on a daily basis were approximately 21 per cent more likely to be retained in treatment at six months than non-cannabis users. This was the first study to find a beneficial link between high-intensity cannabis use and retention in treatment among people initiating OAT.
The findings add to an emerging body of research suggesting cannabis could have a stabilising impact for many patients on treatment, while also reducing the risk of overdose.
“Scientists are only just beginning to understand the role cannabis might play in supporting people’s wellbeing, particularly those who use other substances,” says Dr. M-J Milloy, study co-author and the Canopy Growth professor of cannabis science at UBC, who will lead the new study with Dr. Socías.
“This study will help us understand if and how cannabis might have a role in addressing the overdose crisis.”
British footballer sentenced to 25 years in Dubai jail over CBD
The footballer said he was unaware that the CBD e-liquids were in the boot of his car
A British football coach has been sentenced to 25 years in jail in Dubai after police seized four bottles of CBD e-liquid from his car.
Billy Hood, a semi-professional football for Kensington and Ealing Borough FC, was sentenced earlier this month for trafficking, selling and possessing drugs, following his arrest on 31 January, 2o21.
The vape liquids contained CBD which is illegal in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as it may contain a trace amount of THC. The oils, which had been found in the boot of his car, had been bought in from the UK which amounted to a trafficking charge.
Hood maintains that he was forced to confess in Arabic which he does not speak.
In a statement, he said he was “shocked, scared and confused” but told the police he was “not in possession of any drugs or substances.”
He said he was unaware the oils had been in the boot as they left there by a friend travelling from England.
“I had just moved to a new home in Dubai and a friend of mine came around to see my new place,” he said.
“I ordered a food delivery then went to my car to get a second phone charger for him to use when I was suddenly approached by police. They jumped out to arrest me, handcuffed me. One officer jumped out and pointed a taser at me, threatening to use it if I didn’t cooperate.”
He added: “They demanded I show them where the drugs are. I was shocked, scared and confused. I told them I wasn’t aware or in possession of any drugs or substances.”
The police were reported to have become interested in speaking with Hood after viewing his social media pages.
They then asked to search his home and car for drugs, leading to the discovery of the 5ml oils and vape pen. They also reportedly discovered a sum of money in the apartment as his new employer had paid him in cash while his bank account was being set up. His friend, who was in the apartment, was also arrested.
Hood said he was then detained in isolation for 14 days before being informed that he would face a second prosecution. The possession of the CBD oils and vape pen would have been a small sentence, however, the trafficking charge contributed to a 25-year sentence.
“I coach football six to seven days a week. I am always working with kids and in schools all over Dubai. From age 16, I played football at a professional level for more than 2 years. I have always had a zero-tolerance on any drugs or illegal substances,” Hood said.
“For me to be accused of promoting and selling drugs in a country that has the same beliefs and values as me, is very upsetting as it affects my future.
“One of the main reasons I moved to the UAE was to pursue my coaching career. I have spent six years collecting my coaching badges and would never let something such as drugs ruin everything.”
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has said they are providing “consular support to a British man who has been imprisoned in the UAE.”
Billy’s mother, 55-year-old Breda said: “I have hidden away, crying and crying when I imagine what our sweet boy is going through. It is the worst stress I’ve ever been through and I feel helpless. He’s always been such a good boy and has never been troublesome. He helps out children, coaches and volunteers. He’s never been into drugs, ever. It is impossible that he is guilty of the allegations against him.”
Meanwhile, Hood’s family are working with the group, Detained in Dubai and lawyers on an appeal. They have launched a campaign for funding through a GoFundMe page that has raised over £13,752.
In a statement on their website, Detained in Dubai said: “The UAE has arrested dozens of foreigners for ‘crimes’ like having a poppyseed on the bottom of one’s shoe, having prescription medicine, residual hashish from marijuana smoked abroad, a glass of wine on a plane and so on. Tourists and ex-pats are at great risk of police setups and sting operations. The FCDO has been asked to increase travel warnings to citizens.”
CBD brand teams up with Welsh artist to highlight emotions of lockdown
CiiTECH has commissioned Welsh artist Nathan Wyburn to create a bespoke piece of art.
Leading cannabis and CBD company CiiTECH, has commissioned Welsh artist Nathan Wyburn to create a bespoke, crowd-sourced piece of art entitled ‘The Journey to Calm’.
The pieces are part of a larger campaign called ‘The Art of Provacan,’ launched by CiiTECH flagship CBD health and wellness brand, Provacan, which is also encouraging people to send in their own artwork.
Nathan has created four pieces of art that show how people feel and what they associate with those feelings by using multiple colours and textures.
The feelings portrayed were recorded in the Art of Provacan survey of over 1,000 people. Members of the public were asked to vote on what colours and textures represented the change in their emotions from unease to calm.
The work took hours to complete and incorporates traditional and non-traditional materials.
Lockdown was a difficult time for many so it is no surprise that this was reflected in the results.
The survey found that seven in 10 participants experienced heightened levels of unease of the past 18 months with two-third struggling to describe how they feel to family and friends.
The Art of Provacan campaign was launched to make these feelings more visible and accessible to help anyone experiencing unrest to feel they have a support network they can turn to.
In a video about the art campaign, Nathan said: “At the height of unease, many people said the sound of scratching was a very common thing. I decided to use the inside of the tape and also nails within this artwork. Red was widely associated with heightened feelings of stress. Navy blue, interestingly, caused mixed reactions from the public.”
He added: “Some related it to a feeling of unrest while others found comfort in it. For this, I decided to use a scourer to blur the artwork to help that feeling of unease and loneliness.”
Nathan, who appeared on Britain’s Got Talent, specialises in creating iconic celebrity portraits and pop culture imagery with non-traditional mediums such as Food. Previous portraits have included Marmite on toast, sauces, sugar and Chocolate. He also combines these with other everyday items such as newspaper cut-outs, soil, glitter, toothpaste fake tan or motor oil.
The art of Provacan
Provacan is the flagship CBD brand of cannabis healthcare company, CiiTECH.
CiiTECH CEO Clifton Flack said: “Teaming up with Nathan for this special project has taught us a lot about the visual expression of stress, unease and worry and we love the fact that he used Provacan while creating the art and also used some of the products in the artworks themselves.”
Breast milk of THC-positive mothers not harmful to short-term health of infants – study
Researchers reported no differences in short-term health impacts such as breathing difficulties or feeding issues.
According to a new study, the breast milk of THC-positive mothers was not found to be harmful to the short-term health of premature infants.
Researchers compared early pre-term infants who were breast-fed from mothers who consumed THC to those who were fed formula or breast milk from non-THC consuming mothers.
They reported that breast milk caused no differences in short-term health impacts such as breathing difficulties, lung development or feeding issues.
The study analysed the medical records of 763 early pre-term babies from 2014 to 2020. Researchers discovered that 17 per cent of the mothers tested positive for THC at the time of giving birth. They also examined post-natal exposure through breast milk.
Researchers found that overall the babies born to mothers who tested positive for cannabis were similarly healthy at the time of their discharge when fed their mothers breast milk in comparison to those who did not receive their mother’s breast milk.
The authors wrote in the abstract: “In our study, we found no evidence that providing [mother’s milk] MM from THC-positive mothers was detrimental to the health of this early preterm population through hospital discharge. A better understanding of longer-term perinatal outcomes associated with THC exposure both in-utero and postnatally via MM would inform appropriate interventions to improve clinical outcomes and safely encourage MM provision for early preterm infants.”
Breast milk from mothers who consume THC is often restricted by neonatal intensive care units because the effects on early preterm infants are unknown. It is thought that the active ingredient can pass through breast milk. Studies have shown that breast milk is a good way to improve pre-term baby outcomes and reduce infection risk along with intestinal issues.
Researchers cautioned women to abstain as the long term effects are still unknown.
THC-positive breast milk
Natalie L. Davis, associate professor of paediatrics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine said: “Providing breast milk from THC-positive women to preterm infants remains controversial since long-term effects of this exposure are unknown.”
She added: “For this reason, we continue to strongly recommend that women avoid cannabis use while pregnant and while nursing their babies. Our study, however, did provide some reassuring news in terms of short-term health effects. It definitely indicates that more research is needed in this area to help provide women and doctors with further guidance.”
“Teasing out the effects of THC can be very difficult to study,” Dr Davis concluded. “We found that women who screened positive for THC were frequently late to obtain prenatal care, which can have a detrimental effect on their baby separate from cannabis use. This is important to note for future public health interventions.”
The study abstract will be presented at the virtual American Academy of Paediatrics National Conference and Exhibition.
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- British footballer sentenced to 25 years in Dubai jail over CBD
- CBD brand teams up with Welsh artist to highlight emotions of lockdown
- Breast milk of THC-positive mothers not harmful to short-term health of infants – study
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