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How can other cannabinoids boost the benefits of CBD oil?

As other cannabinoids such as CBG, CBGa and CBC are being added to CBD products, we ask what health benefits they could have

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Cannabinoids: A row of three bottles of oil sitting on a shelf with a cannabis plant in the background

There are hundreds of cannabinoids in existence that we are only starting to understand the benefits of. We examine the science behind CBG, CBC, CBN and CBDa.

Cibdol announced they are launching a new range called CBD oil 2.0. The upgraded formula combines multiple hemp extracts to work with their CBD. This will be the first of its kind in Europe.

It signals the rise of a new CBD oil category in wellness, CBD with added extras such as different cannabinoids, terpene profiles and adaptogens.

The CBD 2.0 oil contains different levels of extracts found in hemp that have a bigger impact on the mind and body. It also contains essential compounds such as CBG, CBC, CBN, CBDa alongside high purity CBD.

Samira Ramsahai, Cibdol CEO said: “As forerunners in the industry, we want to maximize hemp’s favourable impact on human health. Using the latest scientific studies as a guide, our enhanced formula greatly improves the levels of the smaller compounds to create a more powerful experience.

“It’s believed that these elements not only work better together, but each exerts a unique influence on receptors and systems spread all over the body. The greater the ratio of smaller compounds alongside CBD, the greater the chance to address specific health issues.”

Cannabinoids: A person using a dropper to draw oil from a bottle

What health benefits do other cannabinoids have?

CBG

Cannabigerol is predicted to be one of the biggest wellness trends for 2022. Brands have been keen to add extracts of this cannabinoid into the products. CBG is the precursor to CBD. Other cannabinoids are derived from cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), an acidic form of CBG.

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There is little CBG in plants at its lowest it could be just one per cent. This makes CBG more expensive than other cannabinoid products. In comparison, CBD is much more available in plants at 20 to 25 per cent. CBG tends to be made from younger plants which contain a higher percentage.

It works in a similar way to CBD in that it interacts with our endocannabinoid system through the receptors that are found all over our bodies. It may bind to the CB1 receptors in our nervous system or CB2 receptors found in our immune system.

One of the most promising and impressive studies on CBG show that it is may help with antibiotic resistance.

Some ‘superbugs’ have stopped responding to antibiotics over the years due to our over-reliance on them. A study from 2020 shows that CBG could be a powerful antibacterial compound that could lead to new drugs being developed. It was found to be potentially effective in mice fighting a resilient form of bacteria called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

This antibacterial benefit could make it a game-changer for skincare aimed at helping with acne. It may help to prevent infections caused by skin breaking. This could make it beneficial for anyone with psoriasis or eczema where the skin can be broken due to scratching.

CBC

CBC stands for cannabichromene and it’s a rising cannabinoid in medical research. It comes from CBG, as all other cannabinoids do. CBC is non-intoxicating so it won’t give you a high like THC will.  It is very similar to CBD in that respect.

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However, unlike CBD, it doesn’t bind very well to the receptors, CB1 and CB2. Instead, it communicates with our vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and our transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). CBC may block pain and inflammation. In an animal study on CBC and THC, it was determined that while both produced effects separately, they were more powerful when they were combined.

Its anti-inflammatory properties may make it a great addition to skincare to help fight rosacea or acne. It may also be great for muscle pain, or post-workout strain if added to topicals.

Cannabinoids: A range of different bottles, tubs and containers for CBD oil. A mortar and pestle has cannabis leaves in it

CBN

Cannabinol is the reason why we may have to wait for this product to hit the UK. CBN is not currently legal in the UK and many other European countries. There are some that do allow THC and CBN such as the Netherlands where Cibdol is based.

The reason CBN is illegal is that it is formed when the THC in cannabis plants is exposed to air and they start to age. However, CBN is not stale THC, it is fast becoming recognised for having its benefits although it was once thought of as a waste product.

There are few studies on this cannabinoid but they do tend to be very recent. One study from 2020 on patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) tested lower and higher doses of CBN. Of the 59 adults, those who were on higher doses recorded less medication use. Those on the lower doses recorded less anxiety.

CBDa

CBDa stands for cannabidiolic acid. It converts to CBD with time and heat. It doesn’t interact with the same receptors as CBD though, it prefers to work with the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. This enzyme is associated with inflammation. usually caused by infection or an injury.

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One of the most impressive benefits of CBDa is that it may be anticonvulsive. It is thought to have 100 times the interaction with the 5-HT receptors in comparison to CBD. The 5-HT receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. CBDa may have better bioavailability than CBD so we can absorb it faster.

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New studies examine effects of THC and CBD on stroke

New data suggests both positive and negative effects of cannabis in stroke patients

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A new study has shown that pre-treatment CBD may have a neuroprotective effect in stroke patients.

The study aimed to investigate the effect of CBD on oxidative stress and cell death which occurs in ischemic stroke patients.

It revealed that the cannabinoid may reduce the destructive effects of cell damage associated with stroke.

Ischemic strokes are the most common type of stroke. They occur when a blood clot blocks a flow of oxygen or blood to the brain. This takes place in arteries that have been narrowed or blocked over time by fatty deposits (plaques). The most common symptoms of a stroke include facial drooping on one side, not being able to lift your arms and slurred speech.

If this occurs, it is vital that a person be taken to the emergency room immediately.

The National Institute of Health Care and Excellence (NICE) estimate that there are around 100,000 strokes every year in the UK. It is also thought that 1.3 million people live with the effects of a stroke.

Stroke recovery and CBD results

The Study showed that CBD reduced the amount of infarction in those samples which had been given the cannabinoid. Infarction refers to the death of tissue as a result of a lack of blood supply and is commonly due to a blood vessel being obstructed or narrowed.

There were also differences in malondialdehyde level (MDA) – a common marker of oxidative stress – between the brains of the CBD group and the vehicle group.

It also revealed that CBD may help to protect tissue by preventing further damage.

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THC and stroke risk

Another recent study examined the effect that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) could have on strokes. It found that it may increase the risk of a certain type of stroke among cannabis consumers.

According to findings, cannabis consumers who experience a stroke known as an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), are twice as likely to develop further complications.

An aSAH occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts on the surface of the brain leading to bleeding between the brain and tissue that covers it. It can result in neurological disabilities, long-term slurred speech or even death. It is estimated that aSAH affects around eight people per 100,000 of the population each year, accounting for six per cent of first strokes.

The study by the American Stroke Association suggested there is twice the risk of developing delayed cerebral ischemia for cannabis consumers. The researchers analysed data from 1,000 patients who had received treatment for bleeding over a 12 year period. In the group of participants, 36 per cent developed cerebral ischemia and 50 per cent had moderate to severe disabilities.

When comparing the results of patients who tested positive for THC with those who did not, they found cannabis consumers were 2.7 times more likely to develop cerebral ischemia. They were also 2.8 times more likely to develop long-term moderate to severe physical disabilities.

However, compared to those who tested negative for THC, the cannabis group did not have larger aneurysms, higher blood pressures or worse stroke symptoms when admitted to the hospital. They did not have any higher cardiovascular risk factors than the negative group.

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Researchers are now conducting further studies in which they hope to better understand if THC can impact aneurysm formation and rupture.

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New study shows CBD may prevent Covid-19 infection

Researchers are calling for more trials to determine if CBD could be a preventative or early treatment for the virus.

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Covid: A covid infection

Researchers are recommending clinical trials to examine if CBD could help to prevent Covid infection after more positive findings have been published.

Researchers from the University of Chicago have reported that CBD may stop the infection of Covid-19 by blocking its ability to replicate in the lungs.

A number of cannabinoids including CBD and THC were tested along with 7-Hydroxycannabidiol (7-OH-CBD) which is thought to be produced when cannabidiol is processed by the body.

The study found that CBD showed a significant negative association with SARS-CoV-2 positive tests in a national sample of patients who were taking  high doses of CBD, prescribed for epilepsy.

As a result of their findings, researchers are calling for more clinical trials to determine whether CBD could eventually be used as a preventative or early treatment for the virus.

Covid- Covid infection

Covid and CBD study

Researchers treated human lung cells with a non-toxic dose of CBD for two hours before exposing the cells to SARS-CoV-2 and monitoring them for the virus and the viral spike protein.

They found that, above a certain threshold concentration, CBD inhibited the virus’ ability to replicate.

Further investigation found that CBD had the same effect in two other types of cells and for three variants of SARS-CoV-2 in addition to the original strain.

CBD did not affect the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to enter the cell. Instead, CBD was effective at blocking replication early in the infection cycle and six hours after the virus had already infected the cell.

Like all viruses, SARS-CoV-2 affects the host cell by hijacking its gene expression machinery to produce more copies of itself and its viral proteins. This effect can be observed by tracking virus-induced changes in cellular RNAs. High concentrations of CBD almost completely eradicated the expression of viral RNAs.

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When it came to the other cannabinoids, CBD was found to be the only potentially potent agent. There was no or limited antiviral activity noted by the similar cannabinoids including THC, CBDA, CBDV, CBC or even CBG.

Marsha Rosner, PhD, professor and senior author of the study said it was a completely unexpected result, she commented: “CBD has anti-inflammatory effects, so we thought that maybe it would stop the second phase of COVID infection involving the immune system, the so-called ‘cytokine storm.’ Surprisingly, it directly inhibited viral replication in lung cells.

She added: “We just wanted to know if CBD would affect the immune system. No one in their right mind would have ever thought that it blocked viral replication, but that’s what it did.”

The researchers do caution that this is not possible with commercially available CBD. The CBD tested was high-purity and also medical grade.

However, Rosner cautioned:  “Going to your corner bakery and buying some CBD muffins or gummy bears probably won’t do anything. The commercially available CBD powder we looked at, which was off the shelf and something you could order online, was sometimes surprisingly of high purity but also of inconsistent quality. It is also hard to get into an oral solution that can be absorbed without the special, FDA-approved formulation.”

CBD and Covid studies

This is the second study to be released showing the potential for cannabinoids in Covid management and prevention.

A study by Oregon State University has revealed that the compounds cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), may have the ability to prevent the virus that causes Covid-19 from entering human cells.

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Researchers and scientists, led by Richard van Breedan, found that a pair of cannabinoid acids bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, blocking a step in the process the virus takes for infection.

Targeting compounds that block the virus-receptor interaction has been helpful for patients with other viral infections such as HIV-1 and hepatitis.

The researchers and scientists identified the two cannabinoid acids through a screening technique, developed previously in van Breeman’s laboratory. The team also screened different botanicals such as red clover, hops, wild yam and three types of liquorice.

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Partner of Irish politician “six years seizure free” faces charges over medical cannabis use

John Montaine uses medical cannabis to manage his epilepsy – and is said to be six years seizure free.

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Irish government medical cannabis
John Montaine, is the partner of Clare Sinn Fein TD Violet Ann Wynne.

The partner of a sitting Irish TD is contesting charges of cannabis possession, saying he uses it medicinally to manage his epilepsy.

John Montaine, who is the partner of Clare Sinn Fein TD Violet Ann Wynne, was charged with the alleged illegal possession of cannabis on February 11, 2021, at his family home, the Irish Independent reported.

Mr Montaine contests the charges and his partner Deputy Wynne has previously spoken publicly about how he uses cannabis medicinally to manage his epilepsy.

Speaking after the initial court hearing in November, Deputy Wynne said in March her partner would be “six years seizure free”.

She went on to say that it has improved his quality of life “100 per cent, without a doubt”.

“There was always some kind of issue – say John having a number of fits within the one month or losing teeth or suffering with severe migraine, but since John has been using the medicinal cannabis, he has had a better quality of life,” Deputy Wynne told the Independent.

She added: “It has also freed myself up. John would have been on disability allowance and I would have had to have been his carer but since using the medicinal cannabis, he doesn’t suffer from any of those issues any longer.”

Medical cannabis is legal in Ireland, but access to a prescription is limited.

Last year Ryan Gorman, a 26-year-old man, from Dublin, who also suffers from epilepsy, became the first patient to receive a cannabis-based medicine through the Medical Cannabis Access Programme.

Despite legislation being signed off in 2019, Ireland’s Health minister Stephen Donnelly only announced funding for it in January 2021, with the programme only becoming fully operational in November.

Four cannabis-based medicines are expected to be available through the MCAP, to people living with one of three qualifying conditions. These include intractable nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, severe treatment-resistant epilepsy and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). 

Mr Montaine’s solicitor appeared in Kilrush District Court on behalf of his client this week, where his case was adjourned until 15 March.

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