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Building America’s biggest hemp empire

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On the southern tip of the US in South Florida, a former vegetable farm that grew beans, tomatoes and squash has a new destiny: becoming the US’s largest hemp operation…

Hal Lucas, a business lawyer by trade, discussed his vision with the farm’s owners, Salvatore Finocchiaro and Leo Talarico. He’d already represented them as their business attorney. 

Lucas told them he wanted to turn the land into a CBD-rich hemp farm. The location was perfect: rich soil due to its proximity to the Everglades, seasonal rainfall that means crops can be watered naturally, and a climate that would allow multiple growth seasons, thanks to its proximity to the equator. 

“They were enthusiastic from the outset,” Lucas says. 

And so South Tip was born. Lucas formed a multi-disciplinary team, including his business partner Keith St. Germain, whose wholesale nursery was granted the 13th medical marijuana license in the state of Florida in 2017. In fact, it was St Germain’s idea to start the farm. 

The company has also partnered with the University of Florida, with researchers doing experimental hemp cultivation projects, through which Lucas hopes to certify South Tip’s hemp genetics. 

The South Tip team also includes Randy Cole and Charles Steinfield, who are ‘cannabis experts,’ Lucas says. 

“They have extensive experience in the industry. Randy is one of the most sought-after cannabis experts in Florida and Charles is his right-hand man. We’ve worked hard to bring them to our team.

“We spent 2019 putting a team together, and 2020 has been about executing it.” 

The process of executing the plan has entailed purchasing real estate, more land and equipment, including tractors, and building greenhouses. They’ve also been buying seeds, and talking to business partners to plan how they will bring their products to market. 

In addition to the farmland, South Tip has approximately 58,000 square feet of building space and plans to build a processing plant. It is currently retrofitting an existing structure to turn into an indoor growth facility. 

On their 70 acres of farmland, South Tip is also planning to build a welcome centre, where customers can try and buy hemp and CBD products and merchandise and go on tours of the hemp farm.

“We’re embracing the agriculture community, but we want to be public-facing, too,” says Lucas, who also sits on the hemp advisory committee for the Florida department of agriculture, who regulates South Tip.

But if the company wants to sell its own hemp-derived products to consumers, as opposed to selling biomass business-to-business, it will need to get an additional licence first, specifically a food safety permit.

But Lucas would also like to eventually sell cultivars to farmers; farmers sell each other seeds that have germinated into small plants, because not all seeds germinate.

“We want to have good relationships with farmers. When we certify genetics, we want to provide cultivars to other farmers for them to grow.

“We want to provide them with high quality cultivars to grow rich hemp plants.”

The ultimate goal, Lucas says, is to build a CBD company that grows and processes products, as well as manufacturing the final CDB product and selling them. 

“We certainly have the capacity to grow this farm to more than 1,500 acres,” Lucas says. 

But, Lucas says, expansion will wait until the time is right, and the market is ready.

“I’m bullish, but I have to have patient for the science on CBD to continue to come out. I also have to be aggressive as this is a frontier industry. This is a business, not a hobby, but I love what we’re doing.”

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Novel food regulations look set to dramatically shrink the CBD sector

Only 42 products have been successful so far, out of more than 800 applications.

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Only 42 products have been advanced to the next stage

The UK’s CBD sector looks set to shrink significantly as the roll out of new regulations continues to batter the industry.

Companies were told to submit detailed applications to the Food Standards Agency by 31 March, in order to stand any chance of getting permission for their products to remain on sale in the UK.

It followed the British government’s adoption of European rules categorising CBD products as ‘novel foods’, an established regulatory status which puts the onus on businesses to demonstrate safety and quality in order to remain on shelves.

Last month the regulator began adding products which have been validated – meaning they have been temporarily approved pending further checks for full authorisation – to a public register.

But despite rising domestic consumer demand and a decision to to only allow products already on sale to apply for authorisation, it looks like the UK could come out the other side with a much smaller CBD sector.

The FSA has confirmed to our sister title Cannabis Wealth it received applications for 803 different CBD products – but only 42 have been advanced to the next stage of the process so far.

More than half of all applications (445) were ‘incomplete’ and a further 41 have been withdrawn altogether.

The FSA is still assessing 317 applications and the regulator believes there ‘could potentially be hundreds of products’ on the final list – but it now seems highly likely the process will significantly reduce the range of options available to customers.

An FSA spokesperson said: “To date only 42 products have advanced onto the public list, these are linked to four validated applications.

“This reflects the complex nature of the industry, the quality of the evidence provided and the number of suitable applications at present.

“Many of the applications that have been received have been incomplete applications and do not provide enough information to assess acceptability.

“In a high number of cases we have had to ask for further information from companies before we can progress the validation process.

“We still expect that there could potentially be hundreds of products on the list by the time it is complete later in the year.

“This list will reflect the products associated with companies that have taken the time to provide sufficient information to demonstrate the safety of their products.”

The public register – which can be accessed here – is not expected to be completed until June.

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Dutch cannabis experiment could see more patients turning to coffee shops

A four-year experiment aims to try and solve the Netherland’s ‘backdoor’ cannabis criminality problem.

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Recreational cannabis use has been tolerated within the walls of the Netherland's coffee shops since the 1970s

A four-year experiment to try and solve the Netherland’s ‘backdoor’ cannabis criminality problem could see patients turning to coffee shops for easier access.

The cultivation and sale of cannabis for recreational purposes are strictly prohibited in the Netherlands – unless you are visiting one of the country’s famous coffee shops.

These establishments are allowed to sell small amounts of cannabis but operate under strict rules, including a limited stock of 500 grams.

On a municipal level, authorities can decide how many coffeeshops it will allow if any, and as the country deals with a growing number of “drug tourists”, individual municipalities can choose to ban foreign visitors from entering the region’s coffee shops.

Although the sale of the drug is tolerated, coffee shops face a contradiction in Dutch law known as the ‘backdoor policy’. Shops can sell the drug to their customers, but their suppliers are forbidden from cultivating and selling cannabis to them. In other words, sales through the front door are allowed, while sales through the backdoor are not.

“As a result of the policy of tolerance, the sale of cannabis to users is permitted, but the cultivation, sale and purchase of that cannabis is prohibited, which easily leads to crime. After all, the coffee shop needs to be supplied,” said Ellen Gielen, head of the life sciences group at global law firm, CMS and co-author of the company’s ‘Expert Guide on Cannabis Legislation’.

“The discussion to legalise the supply of coffee shops with cannabis has been going on for several years.”

A 2008 “weed summit” brought together 33 Dutch mayors from various municipalities and different political parties to discuss drug tourism in border regions. A survey carried out by the evening newspaper NRC Handelsblad revealed that 80 percent of the mayors in attendance were in favour of ‘regulating the backdoor’.

Over a decade later, the Netherlands is now embarking on an experiment across ten municipalities to evaluate the effects of a closed supply chain for coffeeshops.

Ten commercial cultivators will be made exempt from current laws, allowing them to sell and deliver quality-controlled cannabis to a total of 79 coffee shops.

The experiment is known as the ‘controlled cannabis supply chain experiment’.

The legally produced cannabis will have to be lab-tested and meet the Dutch government’s quality, labelling and packaging requirements. But there will be no limit to the THC concentration and producers can set their own pricing.

Cultivators applied to be part of the study in July 2020 and are due to be selected this month before the Dutch government kick starts the four-year experiment.

“The aim is to see if and how cultivators can supply quality-controlled cannabis to coffee shops in a decriminalised way,” Gielen added.

“In addition, the government wants to examine the effects of the experiment on the problems that some municipalities experience – for instance, on crime and public health.

“The experiment means that more suppliers and cultivators are contracted by the government and there are more options for the sale of seeds and or cannabis.”

Gielen anticipates that recreational use through coffee shops will, in part, substitute medicinally prescribed cannabis.

“Doctors are holding back from prescribing cannabis and health insurance companies, in general, do not reimburse for medicinal cannabis,” Gielen said.

“Some patients therefore choose to get their cannabis at coffee shops.”

Although it has been legal for any physician to prescribe medical cannabis in the Netherlands since 2003, treatment guidelines do not encourage prescribing due to the lack of clinical evidence.

“Especially now that the government is planning to supervise the supply and quality through the experiment, expectations are that medicinal users will switch to the freely available recreational cannabis, as they have to pay for it anyway.”

A research consortium that includes Breuer & Intraval, Rand Europe and the Trimbos Institute was commissioned by the Dutch government and will carry out an evaluation over the four-year period.

The consortium will investigate the impact of the experiment on health, user experience, nuisance and displacement effects.

Stijn Hoorens cannabis experiment

Stijn Hoorens, senior research leader at RAND Europe

“We will conduct numerous interviews with coffeeshop owners, municipalities, police and other stakeholders,” said Stijn Hoorens, senior research leader at Rand Europe.

“We will count coffeeshop visitors and conduct a survey amongst customers and ask them about their purchasing and consumption behaviour.”

The Trimbos Institute, meanwhile, will take cannabis samples from coffeeshops in both experimental and control cities and have them lab-tested and compared.

“At RAND, we will also aim to measure some of the developments outside the coffeeshops and whether we could observe any displaced effects on the illegal market,” Hoorens continued.

“This is very difficult, because we don’t have a reliable picture of what’s happening in the illegal market in the first place, let alone as a consequence of the experiment, but we’ll try.”

The results from the ten multiplicities involved with the experiment will be compared with a control group of ten other regions where the current laws are maintained.

The conclusions of the study will later be used by the government to decide on its next steps for designing the future of cannabis policy, however Hoorens said the main objective was not to reduce illegal production or curb organised crime.

“The primary objective is to test whether it is at all possible, or feasible to design, operate and enforce a closed supply chain for decriminalised cannabis,” Hoorens said.

“If the main actors in the supply chain, producers, distributors, coffee shops, consumers, local authorities and law enforcement are happy, the experiment has succeeded. However, we are also asked to attempt to measure the effects on public health, public safety, nuisance, crime, and displacements effects.”

At such an early stage, it is difficult to predict the outcome of the experiment, but Hoorens believes it is unlikely that the “backdoor” policy will still exist in the Netherlands after the four-year experiment.

“We have a number of hypotheses that we will test, but anything could happen,” Hoorens added.

“If customers don’t like the legally produced cannabis, the illegal market might thrive. If the legal products turn out to be a success, there might be a displacement from the illegal market, and perhaps even from other cities towards the coffee shops in intervention cities.

“I think it’s fair to say, that it is unlikely that the situation with a decriminalised front door and a criminalised back door will still be present in the Netherlands.”

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Greenheart’s ‘groundbreaking’ tech is set to revolutionise hemp farming

Cannabis Health speaks to the Irish CBD company that is on track to revolutionise the sector. 

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Cryptocurrency, state of the art cold-press technology and an AI drone that allows cultivators to produce up to five times the yield of an average farm: Cannabis Health speaks to the CBD company that is on a path to revolutionise the sector. 

Hemp cultivators will know that only female plants can grow flowers; the component from which cannabinoids are extracted to make CBD products. Male plants on the other hand only produce pollen sacs, a useful tool for breeding but detrimental for farmers seeking to produce a high yield of usable hemp. 

In the 1970s, cannabis and hemp growers discovered that growing only female plants or removing male plants before they matured boosted both the yield and potency of their end product. 

They found that the longer a female plant is left unpollinated, the larger it will grow, meaning farmers can produce a greater number of flowers with a higher yield of cannabinoids. 

A 1998 study confirmed this, revealing that pollination of female plants resulted in a yield 56 percent lower than an unpollinated crop.   

To maximise their profits, some farmers inject a huge amount of time and resources into identifying and removing male plants before they release their pollen. However, distinguishing between the two sexes is a near impossible task. Male and female plants look almost identical until the flowering stage, at which point it is too late to prevent pollination. 

Farmers can buy feminised seed to sidestep this issue, however very few can justify the significantly higher costs compared to scattered seeds which contain both genders. 

But Irish company Greenheart CBD has partnered with Canadian technology firm, Zenadrone, to develop an artificial intelligence drone that can solve the problem. 

Greenheart CBD

Greenheart CBD co-founders Mark Cavanan and Paul Walsh

The six-foot drone features a robotic arm that can pinpoint and remove the male plants before pollination. The result is a crop consisting only of unpollinated female plants with space to grow to their maximum size. 

According to Greenheart co-founder, Paul Walsh, an average farmer in Ireland would expect to produce around 200kg of dried flower per acre. Using its drone technology, Greenheart is able to yield 1,000kg per acre. 

“There’s nothing else like it in the world, it’s completely groundbreaking,” said Walsh.

“It’s like when the tractor first came to the farm – well this is the new tractor.”

The drone also serves as a security tool, with camera systems which are connected to a mobile app meaning farmers can monitor their crop 24 hours a day. And as well as boosting profitability by allowing for a higher yield, it also collects data throughout the process, ensuring full traceability of the hemp plants from the farm, through its production facility, where cold press technology is used to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from crops. 

As opposed to the more popular methods of extraction using CO2 or ethanol, cold-press technology subjects hemp flower to high pressures at relatively low temperatures to produce an extract that contains the entire spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes. 

Greenheart has now developed several cosmetic products along with three flavours of CBD-infused popcorn, with a new range of protein-based CBD products under development. 

Before venturing into the cannabis and CBD sector, Walsh built a career in blockchain technology, working for a number of multinational tech companies, including PayPal. After several years in the sector, he decided to return to his home country of Ireland to integrate the cryptocurrency system into the Irish hemp sector. 

In 2019, he teamed up with fellow entrepreneur, Mark Canavan, and the duo set out to address some of the key challenges faced by the sector.

“While doing market research for a previous company, I noticed that a lot of farmers were in a bad state of affairs,” Walsh said. 

“A couple of farmers were taking the risk and trying to grow hemp. When I got to them and asked them what the problems were, they had no infrastructure, they had no sales channels, they really didn’t know what they were doing or how to get this crop to market. 

“They could grow an absolutely fabulous crop, but when it came to the processing of the crop, and getting it to the market it was something that they were lacking [expertise] in.”

The strict laws and regulations surrounding cannabis has led to CBD companies facing various issues with banking and payment processes. Many struggle to build relationships with mainstream payment providers and instead have to rely on high-risk payment processors with high fees to sell their products. 

In an effort to tackle these issues, Greenheart CBD made the bold decision to launch its own cryptocurrency called Punt, named after the old Irish currency. Through Greenheart’s mobile application, customers can buy its products and earn rewards and exclusive discounts for using the new Punt.

“It solves a lot of issues,” Walsh said.

“There are lower transaction fees and it is very adaptable for our customers. The benefits of this cryptocurrency is that as the project grows, the price grows.”  

With the data gathered from the AI drone, coupled with the financial data collected through its mobile app, Greenheart is able to trace all of its products back to the original source and make the information available to the end-consumer. 

“We have a completely transparent chain, literally from the farm itself to the currency,” Walsh explained. 

“In our mobile app we have a QR code scanner so on every product that you get, you can scan the QR code and get access to all the information about the plants,  the farm where it was grown, the processes it went through, the blend that it went through, what it was mixed with and the travel lifecycle of the product. 

“All the information needed for you to make a sound decision on whether this product is high quality, and whether it’s worth the money.”

Greenheart’s efforts to bring cutting edge tech into the hemp sector hasn’t gone unnoticed. This year, the company received an All-Star Award from the All-Ireland Business Foundation and Walsh was accredited as a thought-leader in innovation, technology and sustainability. 

Greenheart has experienced exponential growth since its launch and is now shipping its products to 49 countries. In its first year, the company grew by 500 percent and is expected to grow by a further 1,000 percent in 2021. 

The company is now developing a “plug and play system” so other farmers can use the innovative technology. The 40ft container can be installed on any farm and allows cultivators to immediately start growing their own hemp crops, manufacture products and get their products out to market. 

“This technology is very low cost and efficient,” Walsh said.

“We’re taking all this technology and combining it together, making a plug and play system that you can drop onto any farm or any location in the world.”

The young company now has its sights set on international expansion with a new production facility under construction in New Jersey, USA and plans to build another facility in Queensland, Australia.

“We’ve grown exponentially and now we’re looking to expand globally to any farm or location in the world,” added Walsh.

“This will enable farmers to start growing the hemp crop and producing a high quality product and with the drone recording the data we can relay that back to any government or government agency which requires full transparency.”

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