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Endometriosis

Does CBD affect endometriosis?

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Illustration of a female ulterus
Statistically one in 10 people with a fertile uterus suffer from endometriosis

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Always Pure Organics’ research assistant Alexandra Gkoutzidou explores the evidence behind the use of CBD to treat and manage the symptoms of endometriosis.

 

What is Endometriosis?

The endometrium is the lining of the uterus that hosts the zygote after fertilisation of the egg[3]. If the egg does not get fertilised, meaning does not embed itself to the endometrium, the endometrium sheds off, causing menstruation.

Then the endometrium will be reconstructed in expectation of the next zygote and shed off again if that does not happen. The endometrium, therefore, is destroyed and reconstructed every month.

When endometrium cells grow in different part of the uterus (other than the endometrium lining) or even the body, this is called endometriosis[2]. The endometrium cells will shed and regrow every month no matter their location in the body, causing lesions, painful periods (dysmenorrhea), pelvic pain, infertility, or subfertility.

Statistically one in 10 people with a fertile uterus suffer from endometriosis, but its cause is not clear yet.

The role of the endocannabinoid system

It appears that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in the normal processes of the female reproductive system[3, 9].

Studies show that proper regulation of the ECS is important to maintain a healthy regulated reproductive system. It has been observed that endocannabinoids’ and their degradative/oxidative enzymes’ expression fluctuate in the female reproductive organ in accordance with the stage of the menstrual cycle[5].

The levels of these endocannabinoids are raised to increase fertility during ovulation and then fall during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Research has shown that this fluctuation of the ECS is not as well-regulated for people suffering from endometriosis.

The results have shown that people with endometriosis have low amount of CB1 receptors in the uterus and abnormal levels of endocannabinoids in their blood during their menstrual cycle.

Evidence shows that in the reproductive system, the use of cannabinoids operates in more than one way.

The way the cannabinoids operate in this system is related to both the amount of expressed cannabinoids and also in the phase of the menstrual cycle. The use of cannabinoids to treat endometriosis, is therefore a complicated case and in such cases it is important to consult a doctor instead of self-medicating, because high levels of the “wrong” cannabinoid, or even at the wrong time of the month could possibly affect ones fertility or cause other gynaecological issues.

What does the evidence say?

McHugh et al [4], researched the effect of THC and N-arachidonyl in the migration of endometrial cells in an animal cell culture. It was observed that while the above two cannabinoids induce migration of the endometrial cells, CBD prohibits it. While this research gives way to more in-depth research for the effect of CBD in human endometriosis, it does not provide sufficient data to claim that CBD is beneficial against endometriosis.

There are two clinical trials currently taking place, researching just that. The first is an open label phase II trial, studying an 1:1 ratio of THC and CBD administered to endometriosis patients to reduce hyperalgesia[6].

The second is a phase III double blind placebo study, where patients will receive norethindrone acetate, a type of hormonal treatment, in accompany with 10 or 20mg of CBD for the management of endometriosis pain[7].

Regardless, a lot of people are already using cannabis and/or CBD to treat the pain derived from endometriosis. Research that took place in Australia investigated the self-management strategies amongst Australian women with endometriosis [8]. This online research was published on social media and invited women to share their own methods of treating their endometriosis symptoms.

The authors suggested that the anonymity of an online research could increase engagement, due to the fact a lot of people use illegal substances to treat pain symptoms. The most common strategies used were self-care and lifestyle choices like heat, rest and meditation, but the most highly effective rated self-reported methods were cannabis, heat, hemp/CBD oil, and dietary changes.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of CBD, THC and possibly other cannabinoids could help treat the pain related to endometriosis, but given the role the ECS has in the uterus there should be more in-depth research in order to realise the factual role CBD plays in endometriosis (if any). The pain sensory system is different to the reproductive system. The role of CBD in pain is well understood and the analgesic effect of CBD in endometriosis pain is probably related to it instead of an effect to the endometrial cells [5, 10, 11].

Nonetheless, CBD has been shown to have positive effects for patients with diseases related to ectopic movement of cells in the body, like cancer and psoriasis. Indeed, CBD has been shown not only to inhibit some cancer cells growth, but also to mediate these cell’s movement to other parts of the body (metastasis) [14, 15, 16].

Similarly, psoriasis is a disease which one of its symptoms is the over production of new skin cells too quickly, that causes the scales. In that case, CBD has been shown to positively affect the skin making it more elastic, better hydrated and reducing the amount of scales by promoting the balanced production of cells and minimising the ectopic production [12]. Similarly, CBD could possibly benefit the ectopic production of endometrial cells but it is yet to be researched.

The levels of cannabinoids in the uterus are strongly related to the phase of the menstrual cycle and they are formed so to increase fertility [9, 13]. Therefore, it is ill advised to use any cannabinoids if you are trying to get pregnant or have a related health problem without advising your doctor and testing whether the endocannabinoid levels are correct during your cycle. A well balanced ECS is the target so always follow the dosage directions.

 

References

[1] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/endometriosis/

[2] doi: 10.1002/bies.201100099

[3] doi:10.1093/molehr/gas037

[4] DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01497.x

[5] DOI: 10.1089/can.2016.0035

[6] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03875261

[7] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04527003

[8] doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2431-x

[9] DOI: 10.1177/1933719114533730

[10] DOI: 10.11607/ofph.1274

[11] https://doi.org/10.1007/s40122-019-0114-4

[12] doi: 10.7417/CT.2019.2116

[13] DOI              10.1186/1471-2202-11-44

[14] DOI: 10.1007/s13105-018-0611-7

[15] doi: 10.17305/bjbms.2018.3532

[16] DOI: 10.3390/ijms2115540

Endometriosis

Lara Parker: “It’s hard to overstate the impact cannabis has had on my life”

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Lara Parker was diagnosed with endometriosis in 2013.

For Endometriosis Awareness Month, Cannabis Health caught up with LA author and editor Lara Parker about living with the condition and finding relief in cannabis. 

When BuzzFeed editor Lara Parker opened up about living with endometriosis in an article in 2014, she learned that there was power in numbers. 

She received the diagnosis less than a year before. But she had been battling excruciating cramps, painful sex and a raft of other debilitating – and unexplained – symptoms since her teens. 

It took seven years for Lara to be diagnosed with endometriosis. If that seems like a long time, it’s not, relatively speaking. Seven and a half years is the average length of time it takes for a patient to be diagnosed, despite the fact that the condition affects one in ten and around 1.5 million women in the UK.

Instagram: laraeparker

Since that first article Lara has become something of an icon for tens of thousands living with endometriosis and chronic illness – particularly women who feel silenced, disbelieved and let down by gender bias in the medical system. In 2020 her first book came out, aptly named Vagina Problems, chronicling her journey in an attempt to provide for others what she wished had been available to her.  

But there’s another reason Lara’s 50,000 plus Instagram followers show up (apart from the steamy shots). She openly, unashamedly, shares the therapeutic effects that cannabis has on her symptoms and overall health and wellbeing.

Living in Los Angeles she has widespread access to legal cannabis, but has still faced stigma and hid it from her doctors initially.

Speaking to Cannabis Health, she reveals how the plant has changed her view of conventional medicine and helped her take control of her own health.

 

CH: Can you tell me a little bit about your current diagnoses and what the journey was like to get to this point? 

Lara: My current diagnoses are endometriosis, adenomyosis, and overall pelvic floor dysfunction. It was a really long and difficult journey to receive these answers. I started experiencing severe symptoms that were disrupting my life when I was just a teenager — around 15 years old. It wasn’t until nearly six years later that I was given my first diagnosis of endometriosis after insisting that a doctor perform a laparoscopic surgery. Since then, it’s been a constant uphill battle to not only find doctors who are knowledgeable about these conditions, but who believed that I deserved relief.

CH: How is your health at the moment and how do your symptoms impact your day to day life?

Lara: My health is up and down. I had a second surgery in January of 2020 to treat my endometriosis and my appendix was removed during this procedure. In some ways, I notice a positive change in my health since the surgery, but in many other ways, I am still struggling. 

I was put on an excessive amount of prescription drugs prior to the surgery and have spent the last eight plus months attempting to wean off of them. This has added so much stress and symptoms onto my life.

In the midst of COVID-19, I was living in the epicentre of the world for the virus for several months. I had to forgo getting care for my illnesses because of my fear of getting COVID and adding yet another health issue on top. The reality of the situation is that there is no cure for endometriosis. I am maybe better than I have been in the past, but I am still at the bottom of a mountain trying to climb my way to the top. 

Instagram: laraeparker

 

CH: How did you first discover the medicinal benefits of cannabis?

Lara: It was by accident, really. I just happened to be dating someone who enjoyed smoking cannabis and would do it fairly often. One day, I was having a horrific pain day when he suggested I try it out and see how I felt. The relief was immediate. I had never experienced anything like it before. After that I began to explore more. I went to dispensaries and asked them questions and I tested out any products that I could get my hands on. 

 

CH: How has it improved things for you? 

Lara: The better question would be how hasn’t it improved things for me? Cannabis has given me an appetite when absolutely nothing else has, it has given me an ability to orgasm in the midst of pelvic pain, it has helped my stress and anxiety levels in the midst of dealing with chronic illnesses, and has helped my pain levels like nothing else ever has. It’s hard to overstate the impact that cannabis has had on my life. 

 

CH: Did you speak to your doctors about it and were they supportive?

Lara: At first, they were not. I was so excited to have found something that genuinely seemed to help me that I could not understand why my doctors weren’t feeling the same enthusiasm. I sort of stopped bringing it up and almost consumed it in secret for a while, but the more I experimented with it and the more it helped me, the more angry I became. 

I eventually chose to stop seeing any of the doctors who were unsupportive of my cannabis use. Now, when I assemble a new team of doctors or visit a new one I am very firm. I use this plant. It helps me. If you have a problem with that or make condescending comments about it, I will walk and I will no longer be a patient of yours – and I will make sure no one in my circle is either. 

Instagram: laraeparker

It’s past time for doctors to realise the medicinal benefits that can be found in this plant.

 

CH: Has it changed your opinion on pharmaceutical drugs and conventional medicine?

Lara: Yes, unequivocally. I was never a huge fan of ‘big pharma’ prior to discovering cannabis simply because it never really seemed to work for me. I was always left with an intense side effect or two which would then have to be treated with more pharmaceutical drugs. I was starting at a level of being in pain and felt like I just kept adding on layers and layers of other issues and it was extremely demoralising. 

I support ‘big pharma’ if it works for you, it’s absolutely someone’s own personal choice. What bothers me, however, is that many people aren’t even allowed access to cannabis to even see if it could help them in place of pharmaceuticals. It’s quite disgusting, really and I hope I see it change in my lifetime. 

 

CH: Living in LA where cannabis is easy to access, how does it make you feel that many other patients don’t have this?

Lara: It’s enraging. It’s mind-boggling that we have access to such an amazing plant and that others don’t simply because their elected officials don’t know how to read books and use their brains. 

CH: You’re very open about your cannabis consumption, have you experienced stigma because of it?

Lara: Certainly, but not at a level that someone who was not white would, I am sure. I grew up in a very small, conservative town in the midwest and a lot of people there still associate cannabis with being some sort of murderer or dangerous person. This past weekend, actually, my parents received an anonymous note in the mail with a bunch of pictures of me smoking cannabis with the words “Are you proud?” written on each one. 

Instagram: laraeparker

 

CH: As someone with a large following on social media, how do you deal with people offering unsolicited advice and telling you how to manage your own health?

Lara: I have had to learn how to set boundaries and stick to them. I have had so many people get angry with me simply because I say to them, ‘I didn’t ask for your medical advice, and I don’t want it’. But it’s been absolutely crucial for me to do so. It’s very difficult to be inundated with commentary on your body constantly. If I wanted advice or help, I would certainly ask for it. 

 

CH: You’ve chosen to use your platform to help others, what impact does that have on you as a patient yourself?

Lara: It has given me the greatest gift of all; to know that I am not alone and that no matter where I am in my struggle, someone else is right there with me. There is power in numbers and I believe that our community is just getting started. 

 

CH: What needs to change about how healthcare treats people with endometriosis and other invisible conditions?

Lara: So much, we need a complete rehaul of medicine. We need patient-forward care. We need holistic approaches. We need medicare for all. We need western doctors to drop the narcissism and admit that they actually don’t have all the answers, not even close. 

CH: What is one thing you would like people to know about endometriosis?

Lara: It is a whole body disease that impacts every single part of someone’s life. It needs to be treated as such. 

 

Vagina Problems: Endometriosis, Painful Sex and Other Taboo Topics is available now.

Follow Lara on Instagram @laraeparker

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Endometriosis

Endometriosis Awareness Month: How can CBD help?

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Endometriosis affects around one in 10 women in the UK

As part of Endometriosis Awareness Month in the UK, Cannabis Health explores the role that CBD can play in managing the condition.

Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the womb starts to grow in other places, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes, which then reacts to the menstrual cycle each month and also bleeds.

However, there is no way for this blood to leave the body, causing inflammation, pain and the formation of scar tissue.

It is the second most common gynecological condition in the UK, affecting around one in 10 women –taking an average of seven and a half years from onset of symptoms to get a diagnosis.

There is no cure, and many women rely on painkillers, hormonal contraception, or surgery to cut away the scar tissue. In more severe cases, the only option may be a full hysterectomy.

However, in recent years, many women have been turning to cannabidiol (CBD) to ease the painful symptoms – with considerable success.

How can it help?

Studies suggest that CBD can help in two ways; by reducing the cell multiplication in the first place and by easing the pain of symptoms.

It is thought that, in women suffering from endometriosis, the body isn’t equipped with the tools that would normally prevent the growth of aberrant cells and destroy them – a process known as apoptosis. 

The endocannabinoid system is involved in apoptosis and stopping cell growth, as in cancer treatments. When certain cannabinoid receptors are activated (either by the body’s endocannabinoids or by plant-sourced THC, the psychoactive compound of cannabis), they can prevent cancer cells from multiplying.

Similar research has shown that activating these receptors inhibits endometriotic tissue from proliferating in mice.

Furthermore, research has shown that molecules like CBD can stop endometriotic cells from migrating, or growing back, by blocking the activation of the GPR18 receptor which increases cell multiplication.

Pain relief

On top of this, CBD is also noted as an effective painkiller for a number of conditions – endometriosis among them. 

It works in two ways; through its famed anti-inflammatory properties, which carry fewer side effects than traditional NSAIDs, and by desensitising pain receptors around the body.

CB1 cannabinoid receptors help to mediate the pain from endometriosis and, according to a 2010 study, are also present in the cells that supply nerve impulses to the endometrial growth.

However, the endometrial cells of women with the condition have been found to have a lower expression of CB1 receptors, which means that activating the few that are expressed is even more important to help alleviate the pain associated with endometriosis.

While many women have found relief through CBD, more research is needed on exactly how it can help.

Other ways to help manage the condition include dietary changes; an anti-inflammatory diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fibre and antioxidants has found to be beneficial for some women. 

Treatments such as acupuncture and meditation are also both effective tools for pain management, while some women have found success with a TENS machine or heat pads and hot water bottles. 

Whichever you choose, CBD can provide a natural, non-addictive supplement to any of the above measures, although it’s always wise to seek medical advice before embarking on any new treatment. 

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Endometriosis

Endometriosis Awareness Month: UK clinic pledges support to patients

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On average it takes over seven years for a diagnosis of endometriosis to be made

To mark Endometriosis Awareness Month this March, Sapphire Medical Clinics has announced its support for the 1.5million women in the UK who are impacted by the condition.

The UK’s first CQC-registered medical cannabis clinic, Sapphire Medical has treated several patients living with the debilitating chronic condition, which affects approximately 10 percent of women aged between 25 and 40.

Endometriosis is often associated with pelvic or abdominal pain but can also cause significant pain elsewhere in the body and lead to other symptoms, including painful sex, reduced fertility and fatigue.  

The pain – which typically begins a few days before a woman gets her period and can last its duration – and other symptoms of endometriosis can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. 

This is exacerbated by delays in diagnosis – on average it takes 7.5 years from the onset of symptoms for a woman to receive a diagnosis. 

Experts believe this is in part due to implicit bias, which is prevalent across the healthcare profession and according to researchers in 2017, involves “associations outside conscious awareness” that lead to a “negative evaluation of a person on the basis of irrelevant  characteristics such as race or gender.”

Pain Management 

Conventional endometriosis-related pain treatment involves pain killers and/or hormonal treatment, with surgical intervention appropriate in some patients but medicinal cannabis is now available as an alternative when these first line therapies have not proved effective.

Until the law changed in November 2018, women living with endometriosis whose traditional treatment was not working, were unable to access legal medical cannabis for their pain and many were forced  to self-medicate by purchasing illicit cannabis, with no guarantee of its quality or contamination. 

Andie Willis, a patient of Sapphire Medical who has previously suffered with endometriosis and is prescribed  medical cannabis for a chronic-pain-related condition, says: “Endometriosis is an evil condition that  brings a raft of issues to women, including excruciating pain. 

“Medical cannabis has been very helpful in  managing my pain and it has been refreshing to be able to discuss my pain with the clinicians at Sapphire  Medical as they are committed to truly listening to their patients.” 

Sapphire Medical’s mission is to improve patient access to MHRA-approved medical cannabis to treat debilitating pain as a result of endometriosis as well as other chronic-pain related conditions when their conventional therapies have not worked.  

“Endometriosis impacts 1.5 million women in the UK and therefore Sapphire Medical strongly supports Endometriosis  Awareness Month and is committed to supporting women who suffer from it,” says Dr Wendy Holden, rheumatologist and pain specialist at Sapphire Medical.

“As our knowledge of pain conditions that respond positively to medical cannabis grows, Sapphire Medical wants to ensure more  patients know that medical cannabis is an option for their pain.”

Dr Holden adds: “Moreover, the issue of implicit bias is one that we take very seriously at Sapphire Medical as it relates to all of our patients. 

“To ensure a patient-centred approach is always taken, Sapphire Medical has instituted  a system that includes a rigorous process to prescribing medication. This includes a strict triaging process and a multi-disciplinary team deciding every potential new patient prescription. As such, our patients can  rest assured their wellbeing is at the centre of everything we do.” 

To understand if you or a loved one is eligible for treatment with medical cannabis, please fill out the  Sapphire Eligibility Assessment

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